Day: June 18, 2022

what is Ecosystem (part – 1)

The interaction between the living organism and the non-living environment is called ecosystem.

ECOSYSTEM – STUCTURE AND FUNCTION: Interaction of biotic and abiotic components results in a physical structure that is characteristic of each type of ecosystem. Identification and description of plant and animal species of an ecosystem gives its species composition. Vertical distribution of different species occupying different levels is called stratification.

The components of the ecosystem are seen to function as a unit:

  • Productivity.
  • Decomposition.
  • Energy flow and
  • Nutrient cycle.

Description of pond as an ecosystem

The abiotic components include all dissolved inorganic and organic substances and the rich soil deposit at the bottom of the pond. The solar input, cycle of temperature, day length, regulates the rates of function of the entire pond.

The producer (autotrophic) includes phytoplankton, some algae and the floating, submerged and marginal plants found in edge of pond.

  • The consumers are represented by zooplankton, free swimming and bottom dwelling animals.
  • The decomposers are the fungi, bacteria especially abundant at the bottom of the pond.
  • Basic events (in terms of function) in an ecosystem:
  • Conversion of inorganic into organic material (photosynthesis) by producers.

Consumption of the autotrophs by heterotrophs.

Decomposition and mineralization of the dead organic matter to release them back for reuse by the autotrophs there is unidirectional flow of energy towards the higher trophic levels and its dissipation and loss as heat to the environment.