Class 12

class 10 and 12th, biology, Female reproductive system

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Accessory glands of female body

  1. Bartholin’s glands (bulbo-vestibular gland): these are one pair, small size gland and present behind labia minora, one on either side of vaginal orifice. This secretes mucus to lubricate the vagina at the time of mating and parturition.
  2. Breast these are one pair rounded structure that present on ventral thoracic wall. Each is convex and has an erectile nipple in its middle. The nipple has 25 opening of lactiferous ducts which carry milk from mammary gland to nipple. Lactiferous duct dilates and form lactiferous ampullae just beneath the nipple to store the milk. Breasts are small sized up to puberty. Their size increases after puberty under the stimulation of estrogen secreted by follicular cells of graffian follicle of ovary. Size of ovary further increased during pregnancy and after child birth under stimulation of prolactin.

Hormonal control

  • FSH of pituitary control transformation of primary follicle into graffian follicle, maturation of ovum and secretion of estrogen by its follicular cell.
  • LH regulates ovulation from follicle, transformation of follicle into corpus leutium and secretion of progesterone from leutium.
  • Growth and functioning of secondary sex organ controlled by progesterone and estrogen. Progesterone promotes implantation and also helps in development of foetus. At the end of pregnancy relexin released from corpus albican and help to broaden the pelvis for easy parturition.


  1. Enlargement of breast
  2. Ovulation and menstrual cycle begin.
  3. Broadening of hip region due to widening of pelvis.
  4. Stoppage of growth of long bones.
  5. Increase in subcutaneous fat in thighs, face and buttocks.

class 12th, chapter 3, Female productive system

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It is concerned with the formation of ova, fertilization, foetal development and child birth. It is located in pelvis region. It consists of following parts:


these are the primary sex organs of female. These are small sized structure that remains suspended in abdominal cavity by mesentery called mesovarium. Each ovary lined by cuboidal germinal epithelium. There is weakly developed connective tissue layer, called tunica albugenia. There are number of small, oval or rounded ovarian follicle in different stage of oogenesis in region of ovary. Every month primary follicle transformed into mature follicle under stimulation of FSH.

Graffian follicle has a secondary oocyte surrounded by few layer of follicular cells. Ovaries are concerned with the formation of ova and secretion of female sex hormones.

Fallopian tube
it is one paired long, ciliated, muscular tube that extends from periphery of ovary to uterus. Each tube divided into three parts: ampula, isthmus and uterine part. Fallopian tube concerned with the conduction of ovum or zygote towards the uterus by peristaltic and cilliary action. It is the site of fertilization.
It is hollow muscular, highly vascularised and innervated pear shaped structure that present in the pelvis region.
It is long fibro muscular tube that lined by the non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. It finally opens into vaginal orifice. Vagina acts as both copulation canals as it receives the sperms from penis during copulation and birth canal during parturition.
it is external genetalia of female. The vestibular (region) part has two apertures upper external uretheral orifice and lower vaginal orifice. Vaginal orifice is partially covered by membranous fold, called hymen. It is often torn during the first intercourse. Vestibule is covered by two pairs of moist skin folds with sebaceous glands. Inner small pair called labia minora and outer larger pair called labia majora. Labia minora anteriorly fuses to form a skin fold called prepuce present in front of clitoris. Clitoris is a sensitive portion which is homologous to penis. Labia minora posteriorly fuses to form a membranous fold that called forchette.