class 10 and 12th, biology, Female reproductive system

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Accessory glands of female body

  1. Bartholin’s glands (bulbo-vestibular gland): these are one pair, small size gland and present behind labia minora, one on either side of vaginal orifice. This secretes mucus to lubricate the vagina at the time of mating and parturition.
  2. Breast these are one pair rounded structure that present on ventral thoracic wall. Each is convex and has an erectile nipple in its middle. The nipple has 25 opening of lactiferous ducts which carry milk from mammary gland to nipple. Lactiferous duct dilates and form lactiferous ampullae just beneath the nipple to store the milk. Breasts are small sized up to puberty. Their size increases after puberty under the stimulation of estrogen secreted by follicular cells of graffian follicle of ovary. Size of ovary further increased during pregnancy and after child birth under stimulation of prolactin.

Hormonal control

  • FSH of pituitary control transformation of primary follicle into graffian follicle, maturation of ovum and secretion of estrogen by its follicular cell.
  • LH regulates ovulation from follicle, transformation of follicle into corpus leutium and secretion of progesterone from leutium.
  • Growth and functioning of secondary sex organ controlled by progesterone and estrogen. Progesterone promotes implantation and also helps in development of foetus. At the end of pregnancy relexin released from corpus albican and help to broaden the pelvis for easy parturition.


  1. Enlargement of breast
  2. Ovulation and menstrual cycle begin.
  3. Broadening of hip region due to widening of pelvis.
  4. Stoppage of growth of long bones.
  5. Increase in subcutaneous fat in thighs, face and buttocks.

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