Human Genome Project (HGP)

Human genome project was the international, collaborative research program whose goal was the complete mapping and under standing of all the genes of human beings. All genes together are known as “genome”.

The Human Genome Project as “Mega project” was a 13 year project co-ordinated by the U.S. Department of energy and the National Institute of Health. An International Human Genome project was launched in the year 1990 and completed in 2003. The International Human Genome sequencing consortium published the first draft of the human genome in the journal Nature in February 2001.

Human genome is said to have approximately 3 x 109 bp, and the cost of sequencing required is US$ 3  per bp. The total estimated cost of the project would be approximately 9 billion US dollars. In human genome 20,000 to 25,000 genes are present, out of them smallest gene is TDF gene with 14 bp and largest gene is Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy gene with 2400 x 103 bp.

OrganismBase pairsNo. of genes
1. EColi4.7 million4,000
2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae12 million6.000
3. Coenorhabditis elegans97 million18,000
4. Drosophila melanogaster180 million13,000

Goals of HGP          

  • Identification of all the approximately 20,000 —25,000 genes in human DNA.
  • To determine the sequence of the 3 billion chemical base pairs that make up human DNA.
  • To store this information in databases
  • To improve tools for data analysis.
  • Transfer related technologies to other sectors, such as industries.
  • Bioinformatics i.e. close association of HGP  with the rapid development of a new area in biology.

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