important examples of BIOTIC FACTORS

Biotic community is an association of a number of interrelated populations Belonging to different species ,in a common environment which can survive In nature(Clarke, 1967).Biotic community was called biocoenosis(Mobius,1880).Clements(1916) stated the community as a sort Of super organism whose member species were tight bound together both Now and in their common evolutionary concept.

Tolerance range

Some examples are:

Plant growth is reduced in deserts due to less availability of water. In deep lakes, due to low phosphorus contents, growth of phytoplanktons is retarded. Biotic community is an assemblage of a number of different but interacting Populations of different species. These populations can be divided into animal Community, plant community and microbial community. These three types of Communities in a biotic community are interdependent. The gradual physiological adjustment to slowly changing new environmental Conditions is called acclimatization.

Osmoregulation involves regulation of osmotic concentration of the body fluids by regulating the water level in them. In all the vertebrates including Human beings, osmoregulatory organs are kidneys. The kidneys are flexible in Osmoregulation.

Osmoregulators and osmoconformers

Osmoregulators are those animals which can maintain an internal osmolarity different from the surrounding Medium. Most of fresh-water invertebrates and most of vertebrates maintain A narrow osmolarity range and are called strict osmoregulators except Myxine(Hag –fish, a marine cyclostome) and elasmobranchs (sharks and rays)Osmoregulators eliminate excess of water if they are in a hypotonic medium. Osmo-conformers: These are those animals which have wide range of osmolarity of their body fluids and change their osmolarity according to that of surrounding medium.

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