Male reproductive system, class 10 and 12th, Biology

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It is located in the pelvic region. It has following parts:

Testis

these are one pair small sized, oval shaped, pinkished colored primary sex organ of male system. These are present in a pouch like structure that called scrotum. Cavity of scrotum remains connected with the cavity of abdomen by inguinal canal. Scrotum acts as the thermo- regulator and helps to maintain testicular temperature 20C lower than body.

Each testis is covered by white fibrous layer called tunica albugenia. There is septa that divide testis into lobules. Each lobule has 1 to 3 seminiferous tubules. Each seminiferous tubule is lined by germinal epithelium and formed two types of cells: germ cell and sertoli cells.

Germ cell undergoes spermatogenesis and form haploid and motile male gamete called spermatozoa. Sertoli cells provide nutrition to sperm. There are group of interstitial cells (leydig cell) outside the tubules. These cells secrete the male sex hormone testosterone. It control development of sexual characters in male body and show spermatogenesis.

Epididymis

it is an elongated structure on each testis. Its function is to provide food and physiological maturation of sperm. It shows peristaltic and segmented movement for sperm.

Vas deference

it is a long muscular tube that starts from lower portion of epididymis and passes over urinary bladder and finally dilates to form ampullae which join the duct of seminal vessicle to form ejaculatory duct. It passes through prostate gland and joins urethra.

Urethra

it arises from urinary bladder and join the ejaculatory duct to form urinogenital tract or canal as it carries urine, sperms and secretion of seminal vessicle, prostrate and Cowper’s gland.

Penis

it is cylindrical erectile and copulatory organ it forms the external genetalia of male. It is supported by three erectile tissues. Two posterior corpora cavernosa and one anterior corpus spongiosum (it surrounds the urinogenital canal). Tip of the penis is highly sensitive and is known as glans penis. It is covered by retractile skin fold called prepuce.

Penis help in copulation. Errection of penis is due to rush of arterial blood into the sinuses of corpus spongiosum aided by the contraction of erector of penis muscles.

T. S. OF PENIS

Accessory genital gland of male

  1. Seminal vesicles: these are one pair of structure that presents b/w the bladder and rectum. Its secretion contains 60% of semen and is mainly composed of citrate, fructose, several proteins and prostaglandins which activate the spermatozoa and stimulate vaginal contractions that help in copulation.
  2. Prostate gland: it pours its alkaline secretion in urethra. It composed of some lipid, small amount of citric acid, bicarbonate ion and few enzymes. Prostrate secretion forms 30% part of semen. It activate sperm and also neutralizes acidity of urine which may kill the sperm.
  3. Cowper’s gland: there are one pair, white pea shaped gland present at the base of penis. It secretes a mucous like substance that lubricates the penis for frictionless movement of penis during copulation.

Secretion of accessory sex gland is called seminal plasma. It is rich in fructose, calcium and certain enzymes. Seminal fluid along with sperm is called semen. It provides proper pH and ionic strength.

Function of male reproductive system

  • Spermatogenesis by germ cells of seminiferous tubules.
  • Secretion of male hormone, testosterone.
  • Transfer of sperm into vagina of female body during copulation.   

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