These are those infectious and communicable diseases whish are transmitted from infected person to a healthy person which not uses the protection during sexual intercourse. It is easier to avoid than to treat and cure.

STD caused by bacteria

  1. Chlamydiosis: it is most common that caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It is spread by sexualContact with infected mating partner. Its incubation period about one week. It is characterized by PUS-like discharge from the penis and painful urination in males. In female, it causes inflammation of cervix, uterus & uterine tubes & if remains untreated then transforms into pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) causing sterility. Persons should use the condom during sexual contact. For treatment: Antibiotics like Tetracycline, erythromycin and rifampacin are the effective.
  2. Gonorrhoea:It is bacterial (gram-ve) and venereal disease caused by a diplocoous bacterium neisseria gonorrboea. It is sexual transmitted disease. Its incubation period is about 2 to 10 days. Gonorrhoea is characterized by inflammation of mucous membrane of urinogenital tract so patient feels burning sensation during urination. It may cause arthritis, female sterility & gonococcal opthalmia (eye infection in children). Recommended antibiotics are ceftriaxone, Ampicillin and penicillium.

STD Caused by Viruses

  1. Hepatitis – B

Hepatitis—B is caused by a double- stranded DNA virus, Hepatitis–B virus (HBV). It is transmitted by blood, body fluids and sexual contact like HIV. It is about 100 times more infectious than HIV. Its incubation period is of 35 days.

  • Its symptoms includes nausea, abdominal pain, fatigue, arthritis and damage to liver cells releasing bilirubin that cause Jaundice,. Hepatitis-B diagnosis by (HBS Ag) Hepatitis-B surface Antigen.
  • Its prophylaxis is proper sanitation, proper coverage of food, water, milk etc, and use of chlorinated water or boiled water.
  • Hepatitis –B – vaccine also available that prepared directly from  blood. HBV vaccine containsglobulin that produces passive immunity in human. Three doses of vaccine are given during 0-1-6 months that provide lifelong immunity.
  1. Genital Herpes

It is caused by type – I, II Herpes simplex viruses. It spread through sexual contact.

  • Its primary symptoms are periodically recurring watery blisters on the genetalia or buttocks, fever, painful urination and the swollen Lymph nodes. Infections may be spread by rapture of blisters and release of viruses.
  • Herpes infection is very devastating in the new born body who comes in contact with open sores during birth process.
  • Drug Acyclovir inhibits appearance of new sores. It interferes the replication of viruses, but cannot be completely cure us.
  • Genital warts

Genital warts are caused by Human papilloma virus (HPV). It spread through the sexual contact.

  • It is characterized by warts on genital organs like penis, Labia, around anus in vagina and on the cervix. HPVs now associated with cancer of cervix and tumours of vulva, vagina& anus.
  • Warts can be removed with the drug condylox, freezing with liquid nitrogen, laser surgery or treatment with alpha interferon (Alferon).


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