part – 2
Animals breeding: Main aim of animal breeding is to produce more milk-yielding cow with longer lactation period and sturdier work animals. The breeding of cattle is done by two methods i.e. natural and artificial.
Types of Animal breeding:
- Inbreeding: It involves breeding of animals of the same breed for about 4 to 6 Generations. Significance:
- It helps in accumulation of superior genes and elimination of less desirable genes.
- It increases the productivity of inbreed population. Drawbacks .
- It increases the chances of expression of harmful recessive genes.
- Continued inbreeding brings a state of inbreeding depression characterized by Reduced fertility and even productivity.
- Out breeding: It Involves breeding of the unrelated animals which may belong to same breed but having different ancestors, or between different breeds(called cross-breeding) or between different species. Out-breeding is of following types: Out crossing & Cross-breeding.
Cross breeds of cows: Karan-swiss, Karan-Fries & Frieswal. Karan Fries and Karan swiss cross-breed cow give about 3500litres of milk.
Main advantages of cross breeds:These consume less feed to give same amount of meat as compared to desi breed.
These consume less feed for producing same number of eggs as compared to desi breeds.
Cross-breeding of sheep: Hisardale is a new cross-breed of sheep and was developed in Punjab by interbreeding between bikaneri ewes and marino rams.
Inter-specific hybridization: This technique of breeding involves the interbreeding of male and female animals of different species. It also helps in combining the good qualities of two different species. Though such inter-specific brids are generally sterile, but highly valuable as work animals e.g. Mules (Male-donkey and female horse) & Hinny (female donkey and male horse)
- Cattle diseases: diseases of dairy animals are divided into three categories:
Parasitic diseases: These are caused either by external parasites(e.g. ticks, mites, fleas and lice which cause skin diseases and cattle leech which sucks blood of buffalo and causes anaemia)or internal parasites(e.g. worms like ascaris which affect their stomach and intestine, and flukes which damage their liver). Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria and viruses. Non-infectious diseases: These include the fungal diseases.
Prevention of diseases: Some of the important steps for preventing animal Diseases are:
The animal-shelters should be spacious, airy and properly lighted. Animals should be given regular bathing. The animals should be compulsorily vaccinated to immunize them against
The pests should not be allowed to enter their shelters. Proper disposal of dead animals and animal wastes.