Strategies for food production

Part – 1

The science of rearing, feeding, caring, breeding and disease control of animals is called animal husbandry) animal husbandry is:

  1. Proper feeding of animals.
  2. Providing fresh-water and good shelter to animals.
  3. Proper health and protection against diseases.
  4. Proper breeding of animals.

Advantages

  1. Increased milk production of through cattle farming.
  2. Increased production eggs through poultry farming.
  3. Improvement of quality of meat through fish farming.
  4. Proper utilization of animal wastes.
  5. To produce more honey and bees wax through bee keeping.

So cattle farming, poultry farming, pissiculture, etc. are the common animal-based farming practices under the animal husbandry.

  1. CATTLE FARMING

The livestock refers to domestic animals which provide us milk, hide or flesh and includes cows, buffaloes, sheep, goat, pigs, horses and elephants. Livestock production needs to be improved to meet the growing needs of milk, eggs, meat, etc. Out of these cattle raising is most important and is done for two purposes. Milk production and bullock labour.

Cattle and buffaloes

Importance: Cattle (bos indicus) and buffalo (bos bubalis) are widely used for.

  1. Agricultural operations like ploughing, harrowing, leveling etc.
  2. They provide milk. Buffaloes are the major source of milk in India.
  3. They are used in driving carts for transportation.
  4. Manure and fuel. The dung provided by them acts as valuable manure for maintaining the fertility of the soil. It is also used for preparation of biogas or gobar gas.
  5. Hides are used for preparation of leather goods.
  6. Their bones, horns and hoofs yield glue and gelatin.

Indigenous breeds of cattle: A breed is a group of animals which are related by Descent and are similar in most characters like general appearance, morphological features, size, configuration, etc. In India, there area about 30 indigenous (desi or Indian) breeds of cows and ten breeds of buffaloes. Depending upon the utility, the cattle are classified into the following groups.

  1. Milch breeds: Their cows are high milk yielding (dairy) varieties but their bullocks are not very useful as work animals e.g. Gir (Gujarat), Sahiwal (Punjab And Haryans).Red sindhi and Deone. Sahiwal breed of cow is superior to otherDairy cows.
  2. Draught breeds. Their males are beast of burden and help in pulling carts, ploughing land and transporting men and materials and are also called Work  animals.These are strong and study. Their cows are less milk –yielding e.g. Nageri, Halliker and Maivi.
  3. General utility or dual purpose breeds. Their cows are good milk yielding while their bullocks are good work animals e.g. Deoni, sahiwal, kankrej, Tharparkae and Dangi. The best known breeds of Indian buffaloes are: Nagpuri, Mehsana, jaffrabadi, surti, Bhadawari, Nili Ravi and Murrah (Punjab andHaryana.etc.

Important exotic:

  1. Holstein-Friesien breed of Holland (3200litres of milk/ year).
  2. Jersey of Island of Jersey of England.
  3. Ayrshire of Scotland.
  4. Brown-swiss (a dual purpose breed) of Switzerland.
  5. Red Dane of Denmark.

Feeding of cattle:

The food given to animals is called feed. Feed constitutes Two main component i.e. roughage and concentrate. In addition, dairy animals should also be given additive feeds which include Antibiotics, minerals and hormones which not  only promote the growth of the Animals and increase the yield of milk but also protect them from diseases.

Dairy farm management practices:

Dairy farm management involves all those Processes and programmes which help in the increase of yield and improve the Quality of milk. A good animal shelter should have the following characteristics:

  1. It should be clean, dry, airy and well ventilated.
  2. It should have proper sunlight during the day.
  3. It should be spacious so as to provide enough space for each animal to stay comfortably.
  4. Regular brushing of animals to remove dirt and loose hairs.

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