Biodiversity of India

Biodiversity of India

India has a great wealth of biodiversity in forest, wetland and Marine areas. It has wide range of Habitat ranging from Tropical rainforest to Alpine vegetation and from temperate forest to coastal wetland. India consists of fertile river Plains and high plateaus and several major rivers including the Ganga, Brahmaputra and Indus. India shows a great diversity in climate, topography and geology Hans very rich in bio Diversity.

The ministry of Environment and Forest Government of India record 47000 species of plants and 81000 species of animals this is about 7% and 6.5 % respectively of global flora and fauna. About 5,000 species of flowering plants have their origin in India.

India is said to be the center of origin of 160 is species of Crop plants and 32 species of wild relatives of cultivated crops. India has 372 different mammals 1228 species of birds 428 species of reptiles India has more than 50000 species of insects including 13000 butterflies and moths.

Biodiversity of India

  • Biodiversity of India

India has a rich and varied heritage of biodiversity, encompassing a wide spectrum of habitats from tropical rainforests to alpine vegetation and from temperate forests to coastal wetlands. India figured with two hotspots – the Western Ghats and the Eastern Himalayas.

India contributes significantly to latitudinal biodiversity trend. With a mere 2.4% of the world’s area, India accounts for 7.31% of the global faunal total with a faunal species count of 89,451 species.

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Bio-geographical regions of India

India has two major realms called the Palaearctic and the Indo-Malayan, and three biomass, namely the tropical humid forests, the tropical dry/deciduous forests, and the warm desert/semi-deserts. India has ten biogeographic regions including the Trans-Himalayan, the Himalayan, the Indian desert, the semi-arid zone(s), the Western Ghats, the Deccan Peninsula, the Gangetic Plain, North-East India, and the islands and coasts. India is one of the 12 centres of origin of cultivated plants. India has 5 world heritage sites, 12 biosphere reserves, and 6 Ramsar wetlands. Amongst the protected areas, India has 88 national parks and 490 sanctuaries covering an area of 1.53 lakh sq. km. India’s record in agro-biodiversity is equally impressive. There are 167 crop species and wild relatives. India is considered to be the centre of origin of 30,000-50,000 varieties of rice, pigeon-pea, mango, turmeric, ginger, sugarcane, gooseberries etc and ranks seventh in terms of contribution to world agriculture.