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POULTRY FARMING importance and its process

Poultry is the branch of animal husbandry concerned with rearing For birds for eggs and meat. Egg-laying birds are called layers while meat yielding birds are called broilers It includes chickens (fowls) ducks, geese, turkeys, Guinea-fowls, pea fowls, pigeons and quails. Among these, fowls are most widely Domesticated birds in India. The practice of raising poultry for eggs and meat is called poultry farming.

  1. Importance: Poultry farming helps to raise the nutritional standard by supplying meat and eggs. Liquid egg consists of 36% yolk, 64% proteins. In India, annual broiler production and egg production in the year 2000 was700 million birds and 33 billion eggs respectively. India is the 5th largest country in the world in poultry production after China, Former USSR, USA and Japan.
  2. Poultry Breeds:

Aseel breed: It provides high yield of meat (as average weight of cock is 4 to 5 kg while that of hen is 3 to 4 kg) but is not a good layer. It has four varieties. Peela(golden red) yakub (black and red) nuri (white) and kajal (black).

White Leghorn: It is a good layer exotic breed and produces large sized white eggs. It is small sized and needs less feed in comparison to indigenous breeds But is not ideal for meat.

Rhode Island Red: It was developed on the farm of Rhode Island in U.S.A. It is a dual purpose breed. It is a good egg layer and also meat yielding breed.

  • Poultry care: Maintenance of temperature and hygienic conditions in poultry housings, Proper poultry feed and water.
  • Disease control
  • Ectoparasites like lice, mites and ticks can be controlled by spraying insecticides like malathione.
  • Endoparasites like Taenia (tape worm) and round worms can be controlled by wormicides.
  • Protozoan diseases like coccidiosis can be treated with sulphadruge.
  • Bacterial diseases can be treated by sulphadruge and antibiotics.

what is PLANT BREEDING and how usefull for us

Plant breeding is an applied branch of botany which deals with the improvement of economically important plants. Performance of a crop or animal is mainly due to its genotype and the invironment in which it is growing environment represents all living and non-living factors surrounding an organism. Genotype is responsible for performance of an organism. Domestication is the process of bringing a species under human management.

NEEDS OF PLANT BREEDING

  • Higher yield
  • Better quality
  • Diseases, insect and pest resistance.
  • New varieties for particular environment.
  • Requirement of specific traits like.
  • Responsiveness to heavy manuring.
  • Easy threshing ability.
  • Ability to grow in different seasons.

DEVELOPMENT OF NEW VARIETIES

  • Collection of variability.
  • Evaluation and selection of parents.
  • Cross hybridization among the selected parents.
  • Selection and testing of superior recombinant.
  • Testing, release and commercialization of new cultivars.

Management for high yields of honey

Management involves all those steps which are required to be undertaken to obtain good quality and higher yield of honey from the honey bees. It involves following considerations.

  1. Bee forage or pasturage: It includes all those flowering plants which provide pollens and nectar to the honey bees e.g. Mango, Coconut, Almond, tamarind, ber, barseem, litchi, cotton, shisham, apple, mahua, coriander, cashew, coffee, rubber plant, guava, sunflower, etc.
  2. Apiary or bee hives: An artificial and movable bee hive, commonly called apiary.
  3. Honey flow season: The yield of honey depends upon the total period for which large number of nectar and pollen-yielding, plants are available in the vicinity of the apiary, called honey flow period.

Swarming. It is the process of leaving off of the colony by the old queen with some workers and drones to establish a new colony at a new place and to provide the existing hive for the progeny. It normally occurs by the end of spring or early summer. But the frequent swarming decreases the yield of honey and increases the maintenance cost of the bee hives. So to get higher yield of honey, less swarming variety of honey bees(e.g. Apis mellifera) should be reared.

What is FISH FARMING (PISCICULTURE)

  1. FISH FARMING (PISCICULTURE)

Pisciculture or fishery or fish farming involves the rearing and breeding of fish, shellfish and other aquatic animals scientifically by man in ponds, tanks, etc. Other aquatic animals include prawns, crabs, lobsters, edible Oysters etc. India occupies 7th position in the world in total fish production. Central institute of freshwater Aquaculture (CIFA), Bhubaneshwar have revolutionized fish culture in india .Blue revolution and a net production of 85.000 kg/hectare has already been Achieved.

Importance or economies:

Fish as food: Fish is a cheap but rich source of animal Proteins. The fish meat has a number of advantages over meat of other animals Because it contains more proteins. Besides providing food, pisciculture also provides a number of by products like Vitamin-rich liver oil e.g. Cod, Halibut, etc. fish-meal (from salmon and haddock And contains 55-70% proteins) fish protein concentrate (contains about 80-90% Proteins) fish guana (used as manure) etc. It also provides employment and better usage of infertile land and water bodies Gambusia fish eats mosquito larvae and helps in biological control of malaria.

  • Types of fish farming:
  • On the basis of nature of source of fishes, fish farming is of tow types:

Capture fisheries: fish is caught directly from their natural resources.

Cultre fisheries: fish is cultivated in artificial water bodies called breeding ponds.

  • On the basis of nature of water sources, fish farming  is of two types:

Marine fisheries: It involves fish production in marine(sea) waters.

Inland fisheries: It involves fish production in fresh water systems and brackish waters like estiaries and lagoons.

  • Culturable breeds of fishes: These are divided into three categories.
  • Indigenous fresh water major carps e.g. catla catla (katala), labeo Rohita (Rohu).
  • Salt water fishes which can live in sea water e.g. chanos mullets
  • Exotic fresh water breeds e.g. common carp, mirror carp. Chines carp, silver carp and grass carp etc.

Major carps are best culturable fishes because these survive even at high temperature and low oxygen. These also have fast growth rate and provide easily digestible and nutritive flesh.

  • Composite fish culture (poly-culture)

Polyculture is a novel method of fish farming in which many types of fishes are cultured together into a pond or water body. In India, it is a very old practice in which Catla, labeo (rohu) and cirrhinus (all Indian breeds) are cultured in same water body.

  • Significance

All the ecological zones (called nitches) are exploited. This increases the fish yield from the pond.

There will be no-competition between different species of the fishes as different fishes have different food habits e.g. catla is a surface feeder.

These fishes help in growth of each other.

  • Common diseases of fishes:

Main infectious diseases of fishes are: Viral Haemorrhagic septicemia(VHS) and Bacterial infections pancreatic Necrosis(IPN).

  • Apiculture

Apiculture is the process of rearing of honey bees in the artificial Hives, called apiaries, for the production of honey at commercial level.

  1. Species of honey bees:  bees belong to phylum Arthropoda and class Insect. These are several species of honey bees some of which are indigenous .While some of them are exotic.
  2. Indigenous species

Apisindica: It is commonly called Indian bee. It is the most common species found in India. It can be domesticated easily as is very gently in nature but is less producing species.

Apis florae: It is commonly called little bee(being smallest sized).It is also very docile but yield is less.

  • Exotic species

Apis mellifera. It is commonly called Italian bee. It is preferred over the indigenous species for the commercial production of honey because of its Docil nature, high yield of honey prolific egg production, less swarming and with Good defense mechanism.

best Method of Curd Preparation

Curd is prepared at home according to the number of individuals in a family of 4 persons. 800-1000 ml boiled and cooled down (about 370C) milk is taken In a container. One day old one tea-spoonful curd is mixed with milk shaken for Proper distribution. The contents are incubated at room temperature. Curd gets Prepared after 4-5 hours of incubation.

Yoghurt: It is produced by curding of milk with the help of streptococcus thermophilus and lactobacillus bulgaricus at about 40 – 600C. It is often Sweeted and flavoured with fruits.

Butter milk: It is acidulated product which is produced by inoculating skimmed Milk with an inoculums of bacteria like streptococcus lactis and leuconostoc  Citrovorum at about 220C.

Production of cheese: It is nutritive product produced by curdling and ripening of milk. Curdling is done by bacterial strains like streptococcus lactis and leuconostoc citrovorum while ripening of solid curd is done by different bacterial strains which provide characteristics texture, flavor and taste to cheese.

Bread(Baking industry): Bread is prepared by adding baker’s yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) to the wheat flour. Yeast secretes zymase complex which contains a number of enzymes like.

  1. Amylase which hydrolysis starch to maltose.
  2. Maltase which changes maltose to glucose.
  3. Zymase which converts glucose to ethanol and CO2. CO2 tries to escape so causing doughing of wheat flour, called leavened flour, and is then baked. CO2 escapes and makes the bread soft and porous.

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what are ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF MICROBES

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF MICROBES

Microbes are both useful and harmful for the human beings. A number of microbes are pathogenic in nature and cause diseases not only in the human Beings but also their useful plants and animals.

  1. MICROBES IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCYION

A number of microbes play important role in producing a number of valuable Products for the human welfare. Industrial production requires the formation of large quantities of the produce which generally involves the microbial reactions to proceed in a specialized vessel called fermenter or bioreactor. A Fermenter is a large-sized vessel in which biological reactions take inside the Microbial cells inoculated in it. It is designed for large scale industrial production of products. Basic mechanism involved is of fermentation which involves anaerobic degradation of organic compounds.

PRODUCTION OF FERMENTED BEVERAGES

Production of fermented beverages especially alcoholic drinks like wine, beer, Whisky, brandy, gin, rum, etc. in the brewing industry is based on the alcoholic Fermentation of malted cereals and fruit juices.

PRODUCTION OF ANTIBIOTICS

Antibiotics are substances, primarily produced by certain harmless micro-organisms which in low concentrations are antagonistic to the growth of other Micro-organisms such as pathogenic bacteria.

Properties of antibiotics for medicinal use

  1. Antibiotic should have quick and broad spectrum therapeutic effect should Kill variety of microorganisms.
  2. It should not cause side effects in the host e.g. nervous disorders, allergies, Indigestion etc.

OTHER INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS

Bioactive molecules are those organic compounds which are produced on Commercial scale by the microbes and are useful in the human welfare. These Include organic acids, enzymes, alcohols, etc.

Other Bioactive Molecules

  1. Cyclosporine.
  2. Vitamins.

MICROBES IN PRODUCTION OF HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS

  1. Production of curd, yoghurt and butter milk.

Curd. It is produced by the bacterial fermentation of milk. Bacteria involved in curd formation are Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which include Lactobacillus acidophilus. Lactis and streptococcus lactis.

what are importance of GANGA ACTION PLAN

Ganga, along with its tributaries, is the largest and a very important river basin of the country. It has been a symbol of purity but today it is highly polluted with three types of pollutants-solid, biological and chemical. There are three main Sources of  biological pollution

  1. Urban liquid and solid wastes,
  2. Dead bodies of animals and humans
  3. Wallowing of cattle.

Regarding the chemical pollution. It is mainly due to industries. There are about 1 32 medium and large industries (86 in UP, 3 in Bihar and 43 in west Bengal).

In turns of BOD discharge: In kg/day, the maximum pollution load through domestic sewage (70.2%) is from West Bengal and that of industrial sources (65.9%) is from U.P. A Rs.550 crores ambitious Ganga Action plan-(GAP) was started in 1985 A.D. Under this project, it is planned to install sewage treatment plants for 27 cities on the bank of Ganga to handle about 1.000 million litres of sewage daily before its discharge into the river. In January 1998 the great environmentalist and Magsayasy award winner Dr. M.C. Mehta has stated that GAP has been totally collapsed as there being no public involvement in the programmed.

What is YAMUNA ACTION PLAN

Yamuna has been turned into an open sewer. In Delhi alone, the Yamuna picks up Nearly 1.800 million liters daily (MLD) of domestic and industrial wastes. About 40% of Delhi’s sewage is discharged into the Yamuna without treatment. The 48 km. sketch of Yamuna passing through okhla is the most polluted segment of the river. A measure of sewage contamination is the coliform. The most serious feature of Yamuna water pollution is that about 515 MLD of untreated water is added Into the river daily which carries about 150 tons of organic wastes, 300 tons of dissolved solids and 150 tons of suspended solids.

On December 10, 1997, the central pollution control Board (CPCB) submitted a Rs 480 crore. Yamuna action plan to Delhi High Court to cleanse the polluted water. This plan was likely to be completed by 31st March, 1999. It involved the Following measures

  • Fourteen sewage treatment plants are being constructed in various parts of Delhi.
  • To ensure that no effluents from NFL, Panipat flow into the river.
  • To ensure that the forthcoming panipat refinery treats its effluents to desired Level and uses the same for irrigation.

what should be Treatment of sewage

Primary treatment: In this method mechanical screening and sedimentation of un-dissolved solids in raw sewage (e.g. floating polythene bags and other objects, large lumps of organic matter, sand and silty is done, so the sewage is passed through mesh screens of successively smaller pore sizes. After screening the sewage is passed through a grit chamber to separate sand and small pebbles by sedimentation. Finally the sewage is passed particles settle down to form the primary sludge. It fails to remove any dissolved substance in water. It does not remove the pathogens.

Secondary or Biological treatment: Sewage treated in primary treatment is brought in contact with oxygen and aerobic micro-organisms. They breakdown the organic matter into harmless materials as CO2 and H2O. Further, chlorination is done to kill the bacteria. It may be further treated to Tertiary level. Two measures are adopted for secondary treatment.

  1. Trickling filter method.
  2. Activated sludge method: The bacteria commonly used in sewage treatment are: Coliform, clostridium, pseudomonas, Micrococcus etc.

Advanced waste management or tertiary treatment: In this salts like nitrates and phosphates are removed by precipitation technique. Water is now pure enough to drink. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a measure of the organic pollutant in The waste water. The greater is the BOD of waste water. More is the amount of Organic matter in the water so more is its pollution potential. The waste water having high amounts of organic wastes has high BOD because the microbes require more oxygen to decompose them which decreases the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water body. This shows that BOD has a direct relationship with the organic wastes while has an inverse relationship with dissolved oxygen. A sharp decline in DO causes increased fish mortality.

Properties of antibiotics for medicinal use

  1. Antibiotic should have quick and broad spectrum therapeutic effect should Kill variety of microorganisms.
  2. It should not cause side effects in the host e.g. nervous disorders, allergies, Indigestion etc.

OTHER INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS

Bioactive molecules are those organic compounds which are produced on Commercial scale by the microbes and are useful in the human welfare. These Include organic acids, enzymes, alcohols, etc.

Other Bioactive Molecules

  1. Cyclosporine.
  2. Vitamins.

MICROBES IN PRODUCTION OF HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS

  1. Production of curd, yoghurt and butter milk.
  2. Curd. It is produced by the bacterial fermentation of milk. Bacteria involved in curd formation are Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which include Lactobacillus acidophilus. Lactis and streptococcus lactis.