- Trans-Himalaya with 2 provinces.
- Himalaya with 4 provinces.
- Desert (Kutch and Thar) with 2 provinces.
- Semi-arid zone with 2 provinces.
- Western –Ghats with 2 provinces.
- Deccan peninsula with 5 provinces.
- Gangetic plain with 2 provinces.
- North East India with 2 provinces.
- Indian Islands with 2 provinces.
- Marine coasts with 3 provinces.
- India as biocentre of origin of cultivated plants
India is one of the 12 centres of origin of cultivated plants.India has been considered as the origin place of 167 cultivated plant species and more than 320 their wild relatives.India is centre of origin of 30,000-50,000 varieties of rice,sugarcane,turmeric,ginger,mango,pigeon-pea etc.
- World heritage sites
India is home to 5 worldheritage sitesand 6 Ramsar wetlands,amongst the protected areas.Heritage sites are the places that attractTourists. SUNDERBAN NATIONAL PARK, NANDA DEVI NATIONAL PARK, KEOLODEO GHANA NATIONAL PARK, MANAS WILD LIFE SANCTUARY & KAZIRANGA NATIONAL PARK.
- There are 33 Botanical Gardens,89 National parks, 492 Wildlife sanctuaries and14 biosphere reserves in India.
- There are about 47,000 species of plants and 81,000 species of animals identified in India. About 60% of the above diversity has been reported from Western Ghats, which is one of the hot spots of diversity in India.Out of the Above 81,000 animals’ species recorded from India.372 are mammals,1228 areBirds,428 reptiles,200 amphibians,2550 fishes,about 57,000 insects and5025Molluses and many other species of invertebrates.
Living resources conservation has three specific objectives:
- To maintain essential ecological processes and life support system.
- To preserve biological diversity.
- To ensure that any utilization of species and ecosystems is sustainable.
Biological diversity includes two related concepts,genetic diversity and ecological diversity.Genetic diversity is the amount of genetic variability among individuals of a single species as also between species.
USES OF BIODIVERSITY
Biodiversity has great importance to mankind due to its many uses:
- Ecosystem (ecological) role of biodiversity.
- Scientific importance.
- Drugs and medicine about 75% of world’s population depends upon plants or plant extracts for medicines. Some examples of drugs and medicenes extracted from plants are:
- Morphine(papaveysomniferum) is used as analgesic.
- Quinine(chinchonaledgeriana) for treatment of malaria.
- Taxol extracted from bark of Taxusbrevifolia and T.baccata is used as anticancer drug.
- Penicillin used as antibiotic is derived from a fungus called penicillium.
- Tetracycline is got from a bacterium.
- Digitalin a drug used for cure of heart ailments is got from digitalis.
Plants are also useful for making many synthetic products called botanochemicals.Twenty five % of drugs in pharmacy are got from only about 120 species of plants.About seventy five % of anticancer drugs are derived from plants found in tropical rainforest.
One of the most fundamental values of bio-diversity is in providing food.
- Industrial importance.
Wildlife is a renewable source and is beneficial to mankind in many ways.
- Fur,skin and other products like leather,honey,lac,cochineal(a redpigment),guano,pearls,etc.obtained from wild animals are sources of trade.
- Lvory of elephants,horns of rhino,antlers of deer,etc. fetch large amount ofmoney in foreign currency market.In fact, tourist industry of Kenya is based onits wildlife.
CAUSES OF EXTINCTION OF BIODIVERSITY
Extinction is the complete elimination of a wild species.It is anatural but slowProcess but due to unplanned activities of man. The rate of decline of wild life has been particularly rapid in the last one hundred years.India alone has a totalof 459 threatened species of which include 86 mammals,70 birds,25 reptiles, 3 amphibians, 8 fishes,23 invertebrates and 244 plants.There are a number of causes which are known to cause extinction of wildlife.
- Destruction of habitats and fragmentation: It is the most serious threat to wildlife. It is due to:
- Pollution due to automobiles,etc.leading to degradation of a number of important habitats.
- Deforestation leads to decrease in the area of movement so decreasing theirreproductive powers.In Tripura,deforestation of dense forests is posing a serious threat to the precious barbe’s leaf monkey,better known as spectacledmonkey,or Lajvanti Bandar,(shy-monkey).
- Soil erosion.
- Agricultural expansion.
- Forest fires due to certain human activities or by chance.
- Indiscriminate hunting for various uses of animals,like food,hide,musk,tuskHorn,fur,plumage,recreation,etc.Other causes of indiscriminate hunting of wild Animals are: their increased demand as museum specimens and increased trade for the animal products like hides,skins,fur,leather,feathers,horns,ivory,meat etc.Excessive hunting is known to cause.
- Extinction of Dodo bird.
- Extinction of Cheetah.