what are solution and their properties


Solution is defined as a homogeneous mixture of two or more chemical substances.

  • A Solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. These substances can be in any of the three physical states. For example, common salt in water (liquid solution), air (gaseous solution), alloys (solid solution), etc.
  • The components of a solution may be classified as: Solute & Solvent
  • There are two types of solution: Aqueous solutions & Non-aqueous solutions. Aqueous solutions: Solutions that contain water as the solvent are called aqueous solutions. For example, sugar in water, carbon dioxide in water, etc.  Non-aqueous solutions: Solutions that contain a solvent other than water are called non-aqueous solutions. Ether, benzene, petrol, carbon tetrachloride etc., are some common solvents. For example, sulphur in carbon disulphide, naphthalene in benzene, etc.

General properties of solution

  • Appearance: Clear and transparent, especially in dilute form.
  • Sub-division of particles: The solute breaks up into tiny particles, which could even be of ionic or molecular size. Solute particles become too small as compared to the pores of a filter paper and they pass through filter paper.
  • Sedimentation of particles does not occur in a solution: The particles of the solute in the solution will not settle down. A true solution can be preserved for any length of time without any sedimentation taking place. Seas and oceans have contained sodium chloride since millions of years, but crystals of salt cannot be seen on the sea-bed or ocean-bed.
  • Homogeneity: Solutions are homogeneous in character. If you add a pinch of salt to a glass of water, the particles of salt spread out evenly throughout the water.
  • No definite composition: A solution is a mixture. Mixtures of the same substances can be mixed in varying proportions. Hence, solutions do not have any definite composition.