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HEREDITY – Transmission of characters from parents to the offspring i.e. from one generation to next generation.
VARIATION – Differences shown by the individuals of a species, and also by the offspring of the same parents are referred to as variations.
GENETICS – Genetics is the branch of biology in which we study about heredity & variation.
DOMINANT TRAIT – A genetic trait is considered dominant if it is expressed in a person who has only one copy of that gene.
RECESSIVE TRAIT – A genetic trait that is expressed only when two copies of the gene are present.
SOMATIC CELL – All cells forming the body of an organism, except the reproductive cells.
GENE – A segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain and forms the basic unit of heredity.
TRAIT –A trait is a distinct variant of a phenotypic character of an organism that may be inherited or environmentally determined.
HAPLOID CELL – Cell having only one set of chromosomes.
DIPLOID CELL – Cell having two sets of chromosomes, one of paternal origin, the other maternal.
GENETIC DRIFT — It refers to the random change in gene frequencies in a small population, presumably owing to chance rather than natural selection, thereby providing diversity without any adaptations.
INHERETED TRAIT – those traits which are controlled by genetic material of the individual and are obtained from the parents in inheritance.
ACQUIRED TRAIT – those trait which acquired by organism during their life period.
ALLELS – is an alternative form of a gene (one member of a pair) that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome.
The transmission of characters (or traits) from the parents to their offspring is called heredity.