- Level of Biodiversity (For more Educational topics click on Science World)
Biodiversity is said to have three level or components that are:
- Ecological diversity: Indian ecosystem biodiversity is described at each three levels (biogeographical region, biotic province &biome.) largest identified ecosystem is biogeographical zone. The vast area covered by biogeographical zone contains a wide diversity of smaller units called biotic provinces. Finally in each biotic province various kinds of biomes. Biome classification follows the following terminology, distinguishing b/w forest, grasslands, wetlands, desert and other such ecosystems on the basis of their physical appearance & dominant biotic or Abiotic element. Vast range of terrestrial and aquatic environment on earth has been classified into no. of ecosystem. Such as: TROPICAL RAIN FOREST, GRASSLAND & WETLANDS.
- Species diversity: It refers to variety of species in a region. With increase in fortunately, genetic diversity can be estimated by species diversity, and this has become the standard unit of measurement in most biodiversity surveys. Species have the advantage of being natural biological divisions and easily identifiable; their diverging appearances were the basis by which they were classified in the 18th century, and modern phylogenetic techniques more often than not produce species divisions similar to those of classical taxonomic divisions. For many groups of organisms, such as birds and flowers, public interest means that identification of many species is already known by large numbers of people. The degree of genetic variability at the species level, and indeed at any taxonomic level, can be maximized by taking species that differ by one another by as many characters as possible. If these characters represent different genetic elements, then the divergent species should represent greater genetic diversity.
- Genetic diversity
It refers to the variation of genes in species. Some argue that the fundamental unit of biodiversity is the gene. Genetic diversity is the degree of variability of the genetic material of an organism. Species are defined by the differences in their genes. High genetic diversity indicates populations that can more easily adapt to changing situations and environments, and also a greater assortment of materials that can be found, increasing the chances of finding a useful compound. However, exact assessment of genetic diversity is both time-consuming and prohibitively expensive, requiring modern laboratories and expensive chemicals. We have so far been able to account for all the genes in just one species of bacteria! Realistically, investigators could only examine a minute fraction of the genetic diversity to be found using this approach, and time is often a constraint.