what is MILLETS & methods of breeding

Hybrid varieties of maize, jowar and bajra have been developed in India by plant Breeders. The concept of hybrid maize production in India was conceived in 1954 at the joint Indo-American Conference. A coordination maize breeding project was sanctioned in 1957 by ICAR.(Indian Council of Agricultural Research).

Advantages of high-yielding Varieties of Crops

  • High yield.
  • Dwarfness
  • Better response to fertilizers.
  • Early maturation.

Disadvantages of High-yielding Varieties of  Crops

  • Require higher inputs.
  • Require frequent weeding.
  • Require more pesticides.


Breeding is done either by conventional methods or by mutation breeding. Sequential steps will be:

  • Screening of germplasm for resistance sources.
  • Hybridization followed by selection and evaluation of hybrid.
  • Testing and release of newly formed disease resistant hybrids.

Other methods employed to get variety of genes including disease resistant genes are.

  • Mutation breeding.
  • Somaclonal variants.
  • Genetic engineering.

Resistant genes are introduced into high yielding varieties by hybridization Resistance to yellow mosaic virus in bhindi (Abelmoschusesculentus) was Transferred from its wild relative. A. manihotland

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